child labor amendment pros and cons

child labor amendment pros and cons

n.d. Census of India 2011. 1440 Words 6 Pages. Despite wide popular support, the amendment was only ratified by 28 of the required 36 states before the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 made it a moot issue by placing child laborunder control of the Department of Labor. As per a survey conducted by the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) in 2004-05, the number was estimated at a little over nine million and a subsequent NSSO survey of 2009-10 put this number at 4.9 million. 6 Pros And Cons of the Equal Rights Amendment In this modern age, gender inequality seems like an issue that belongs only in the past. Further, the existing provision of punishment for parents or guardians of the child being the same as that for the employer are to be altered with no punishment being applicable in case of a first offence. Hence, the trends suggest that we need to be cautious about the role that legislation can play in eradicating child labour. In the service sector, in segments such as hospitality, entertainment, family-owned shops and dhabas, child labour may similarly involve long working hours under duress, lifting of heavy loads and enduring verbal and physical abuse and other exploitative practices. In sum, it is difficult to assess the implications of the recent changes in the Child Labour Act without further clarity on the government’s position on other programmes and initiatives that have a bearing on the problem of child labour, and without information on what steps the government may be taking to improve enforcement of existing legislation. The Act seeks to amend the definition of illegal immigrant for Hindu, Sikh, Parsi, Buddhist and Christian immigrants from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh, who have lived in India without documentation. Replies. 3. The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that it is important to exclusively breastfeed a child for 6 months after birth to reduce infant mortality. No activity can be presumed to be benign. Ensuring Zero Tolerance for all Forms of Forced Labour, The Hindu Centre for Politics and Public Policy, July 14. Do they really improve upon the existing legislation and if so, to what extent and in which manner and if not, what more is needed? Pros And Cons Of Child Labour. 1446 Words 6 Pages. To be covered by the child labor laws, businesses must meet the following criteria: The business' gross income must be $500,000 or more. 18: Modern Day Slavery: A Study of Tribals and Dalits as Bonded Labour in Brick Kilns, The Hindu Centre for Politics and Public Policy, February 26. ... and hard slave labor. Can Intermarriage Lead To An Increase In The Number Of Jews In America? The case Miller v. Luckily there have been organizations that have been formed to put a stop on this problem, such as the International Labor Organization. For everyone saying that this is unethical and terrible of a person to say that something such as child labor has benefits, you don't know what you are talking about. Estimates show that over 50% of the workers in some British factories in the early 1800s were under the age of 14. Parent topic: Pros and Cons The United States Constitution is one of the most significant documents in modern world history. "Children in India 2012 - A Statistical Appraisal." In light of these proposed amendments, the question that naturally arises is whether these intended legislative changes will make the CLPRA more effective in reducing the incidence of child labour in India. The stated reason for these exceptions is that such activities may help children learn the basics of these occupations. They are exposed to the hazards of working with chemicals and machinery. But the pros only outweigh the cons if the minimum wage isn’t too high. PROPOSED CHILD LABOUR (PREVENTION AND REHABILITATION) AMEDMENT BILL, 2012 Amidst the entire ruckus after the change in the government, we have seen many bills and amendment approved by the cabinet; one of them is the child labour (Prohibition and Regulation) act, 2012. 3. This exception is based on an underlying premise that such occupations and activities are not harmful to child workers, not prone to abuse, that one can clearly delineate hazardous and non-hazardous activities. Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929 to was passed to prevent child marriage. Two types of change and organizations have invested in blue is due to the surfac it is leading the way personal characteristics that are highly resistant to new ways as architect and principal enforcer of I … Although child labor occurs in all countries and is one of the world’s major problems, the situation is particularly severe in developing countries, with high poverty and poor schooling opportunities, child labor is still prevalent. Provisions related to child and female labour has been kept alive. The amendment, which officially abolished slavery in the United States in 1865, includes a loophole regarding involuntary servitude. The reasons advanced can be questioned. The conversion rate from the number of inspections to the number of prosecutions was five per cent or less, and less than one per cent in the case of convictions throughout the 2007-11 period. The underlying premises may not be justified. Many of the jobs the children participate in are harmful to their health. 1. Hence, there are both pros and cons and the implications of the amended legislation are ambiguous. The progressive era was filled with many pros and many cons which consist of child labour, workplace safety and big business which happened to rule over many small business’. A new definition of adolescent (ages 14 to 18) has also been introduced in the Bill, and employment of adolescents has been prohibited in hazardous occupations and processes. The argument is that in keeping with the country’s socio-economic realities, in order to help impoverished families earn a living, certain types of child work have been permitted. What are the implications? “Learn and earn” apprenticeship schemes can be considered both for adults and children with a focus on imparting vocational skills that enhance income and employment opportunities. However, you might be surprised to find out that some rights are still not equally enjoyed by men and women today. The proposed amendments could, therefore, have a retrograde outcome. Observed numbers may not reveal the full picture and, more importantly, the mere existence of legislation does not guarantee follow through and enforcement. In the United States, there were over 750,000 children under the age of 15 working in 1870. It also states that all state child labor laws shall be suspended to give effect to those created by congress (Adimon). Wages cannot be so high that they reduce a company's ability to keep labor costs low during a recession . ^ Government of India. It also states that all state child labor laws shall be suspended to give effect to those created by congress (Adimon). Much is contingent on proper enforcement of existing laws and provisions. This helps me a ton for my project for pros and cons of child labor!! The U.P. The proposed amendments to the Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation), Act, 1986 (CLPRA) ban employment of children below 14 years of age in all occupations and processes, while allowing work in non-hazardous family businesses, entertainment and sports activities (except circus) after school hours or during vacations, without compromising the safety and education of the working children. Furthermore, such exceptions are likely to reduce the accountability of enforcement officials, employers and families. Therefore, the implicit assumption that children are given a choice to work or not work in family enterprises may not be correct. Younger minds are like sponges - children can learn in a few hours what it takes a young adult days and an older adult weeks to learn. Our main concern regarding the proposed amendments, however, stems from the possible misuse of the exceptions that have been made for work in “family enterprises” outside of school hours. Child Labour Facts & Figures: An Analysis of Census 2001. This paper therefore seeks to analyze the pros and cons of the proposed NSSF Amendment Bill 2019 and makes recommendations aimed at strengthening the proposals. Hence, child labour can, in fact, perpetuate the problem of poverty for such households and denying children the opportunity to get educated can have a long-term adverse effect on human capital and income. Child Labour is cheap. Protests have broken out across India, a few of them violent, against the Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2019. Arguments can be made in favour or against. Pros And Cons Of Child Labour. We recognize in our child labor laws that kids under the age of 14 are impulsive and immature, without the same capability for moral judgment as older children. An approach that recognises the interconnected nature of child labour with other issues would focus on 1) steps to prevent violence at homes, 2) measures to empower and educate women, and 3) income and employment generation schemes for adults. I only have 25 mins left of the lesson Help! 1446 Words 6 Pages. Child Artists: Unnoticed Victims of Child Labour 9. These children were made to get to work in the early hours of the morning and did not return home until late into the night. Children can contribute to family income A very cruel, yet very common scenario in poor countries is that parents consider their children as a reliable source of income. Browning’s use of dark and light imagery is similar to her Romantic counterpart William Blake in “The Chimney Sweepers”, however, Browning’s tone is overwhelmingly exasperated, while Blake’s is childishly sarcastic. It might be argued that the government’s efforts in addressing the problem and the existence of legislation such as the CLPRA have contributed to the decline in the number of child workers. Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Bill 2012: Pros and Cons 6. Although there are many reasons why the Child Labor Amendment should be ratified, states were, and are still today, justified in their refusal giving the government too much power, organizations and laws being created , and its decline in popularity over the years. Notwithstanding the long-standing ban on children under 14 years of age working in hazardous occupations, a substantial number of children continue to work in such industries. Firstly, the numbers themselves should be taken with some caution as most surveys tend to underestimate the number of child workers (especially girls) due to the non-coverage of household work. National Commission for Protection of Child Rights. The amendment is therefore timely to ensure that it is aligned to the current labour situation in Uganda where the informal sector is absolving majority of the labour force. Although we do not have the latest data on the number of children occupied in hazardous industries based on the Census 2011 data, some estimates suggest that a sizeable number continue to work in banned occupations and processes. Given the above realities of enforcement and prevailing conditions, the permission granted to children to work in certain non-hazardous informal sector activities (such as in family businesses and agricultural activities) could be a regressive step. Alongside these exceptions, however, stricter penalties than those currently in place have been recommended in case of violation of the Act. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) is an amendment to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. school to go work once said, “Man is the only animal that lives on its young.” Child labor has been an ongoing debate in American culture. They may also result in certain regressive and unintended effects such as on a child’s right to education. On one hand, the move to expand the scope of the prohibition of child labour across all occupations and activities can be termed a positive step. The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that it is important to exclusively breastfeed a child for 6 months after birth to reduce infant mortality. Accessed June 13, 2015. http://unicef.in/Story/1139/Assessing-Child-Domestic-Labour-in-India. Child labor has been a problem in America since the Industrial Revolution. Copyright © 2021. They will be granted fast track Indian citizenship in six years. More importantly, these numbers do not reveal how many of these children were working in hazardous and banned segments and the degree of vulnerability. According to Census 2001, approximately 1.2 million children were working in banned occupations or processes, the most prevalent ones being bidi making and construction, as shown in Figure 2 below. Synopsis. The Hindu Centre For Politics and Public Policy, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, http://unicef.in/Story/1139/Assessing-Child-Domestic-Labour-in-India, http://mospi.nic.in/Mospi_New/upload/Children_in_India_2012-rev.pdf, http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@asia/@ro-bangkok/@sro-new_delhi/documents/projectdocumentation/wcms_125442.pdf, Ensuring Zero Tolerance for all Forms of Forced Labour, Policy Report No. The Cabinet has made these exceptions within the blanket prohibition of child labour, considering the large number of children in India who help their parents in various activities, such as farming and handicrafts. They start from a very young age which can strip them from their childhood. Also, in 1916 and 1918, the Supreme Court declared Congress’s laws on child labor unconstitutional because it “denied children the freedom to contract work” (Freedman 94). "Magnitude of Child Labour in India: An Analysis of Official Sources of Data (Draft)." Can a Complete Ban on Child Labour Solve the Problem? Most kids dropped out after primary school to work as “chippers” in turpentine camps (Amidon). n.d. Census of India 2011. American shoppers may not know it, but many of the name-brand products they purchase - from clothing to carpets to sports equipment - were made under appalling circumstances. The Pros And Cons Of Cruel And Unusual Punishment. How justified is such a position which basically reiterates the age old belief that child labour is due to poverty? This means that any state law that had been created by a state’s government will no longer be in effect so that the amendment’s laws will take place. —. According to a 2007 Ministry of Labour press release, 2,229 violations of the notification banning employment of children under 14 as domestic help and in the hospitality sector were detected. John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie and Leland Stanford were known as 3 of the wealthiest men alive as their business’ expanded widely throughout the progressive era. The First Amendment is an amendment that protects the right of speech, petition, assembly, religion, and press. Right now im sat in my lesson in the computer room, typing up my essay of "pros and cons of child labour" i've got a whole list of Pros But the only cons i can think of are the fact that it is morally wrong and unjustifing. Pros And Cons Of The Child Labor Amendment. As per UNICEF, there are three forms of child labour:   i. 2. We hope that the government does not lose sight of the larger social, cultural and economic context within which child labour has to be addressed and that these amendments are seen as part of a broad-based and holistic national strategy to tackle child labour across all its dimensions. These children were working to provide for themselves and their family while sacrificing their childhood. Table 1: Numbers of inspections, prosecutions and convictions under CLPRA, 2007-11, Source : Based on Government of India sources. If a family has sick family members, the child can work and bring in income. In the more time preparing mil and pros child labor cons learning office group. Of course, before trying to end a problem is important to know why children are working rather than engaging in activities that every child should such as going to school. The children that worked in these factories were treated as animals. Figure 1: Child Labour in India (Age 5-14 years), Source : Based on data obtained from http://censusindia.gov.in/ (accessed 26 May 2015). n.d. "Assessing Child Domestic Labour in India." Within the family - where children are engaged in household tasks without payment. Similarly, one can also question the poverty argument that has been given by the government to allow work in some activities. Similarly, these “exempted” activities do not preclude the possibility of bonded child labour, which is a hidden phenomenon predominant in the informal sector, especially in agriculture where children are bonded to help pay off the family’s debt. One cannot presume that such activities cannot be harmful to the child as much depends on the terms and conditions of work and how these are regulated and enforced. Reply. In the absence of adequate regulatory and institutional capacity to ensure child welfare, child workers in informal enterprises and family settings could be left unprotected and subject to exploitation, persecution and abuse. According to Census 2001, out of 238.8 million children between the ages of five and 14, constituting about a quarter of India’s population, some 12.6 million (or five per cent of this age group) were working. Discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions constitutes unlawful sex discrimination under Title VII. Solitary confinement cuts off a prisoner from almost all human communication for an extended period of time. ^ Rao, Jyoti . In some ways, this is true. The business is a hospital or an institution for the mentally or physically ill, disabled or old; or any type of school. Figure 2: Children working in prohibited industries in India, 2001, Source : Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (2012). [https://www.thehinducentre.com/the-arena/current-issues/article32043893.ece]. [https://www.thehinducentre.com/publications/policy-report/article31527561.ece/BINARY/Policy%20Report%20No_18.pdf]. Real reasons please. 2. There must be a coherent, multi-pronged approach with multiple ministries, agencies and private sector stakeholders coming together. Many of these occupations are outside the purview of the law. Banerjie, A. Farm Labor: Farm Loans and Subsidies: Farm Policy: Federal Budget and National Debt: Federal Judiciary: Federal Reserve System: Federal/State Government Relations: Food Prices and Supply: Food Safety: Foreign Aid: Gambling and Lotteries: Gay, Lesbian and Transgender Issues: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgendered Individuals: Genetics and Cloning Child labor was a common practice throughout much of the Industrial Revolution. Well, I have listed some positive sides of child labor below to explain you that why child labor might be a good thing and should not be banned completely. If one adds to these numbers the fact that the inspected cases are likely to be only a fraction of the true extent of such violations, the share of actual cases of violation that are detected, inspected, reported and convicted is likely to be even smaller. United States 1924. Government of India. Further, there may be adverse unforeseen consequences on the socio-economic front. Rapid urbanisation and growth of the informal economy has fuelled a rise in the employment of child labour in many informal trade and services, and, to some extent, manufacturing. In the informal sector, for example, agriculture draws the bulk of child workers. 2008. First proposed in 1922, the amendment was approved by both houses on 2 June 1924. 5. However, the expanded ban on child labour and the exceptions permitted for family enterprises and within certain time frames could also result in more illicit and unregulated forms of child labour and could be misused. Congress passed an amendment banning child labor, but the bill was not approved by the states British Child Labor Limit Law, 1802 and 1819 Children's Rights by Courtney Farrell Reply Delete. As we all know, child labour is a much thought about topic, and we consider both the pros and cons of this topic, and yes, believe it or not there are cons, albeit not too many. THANK YOU. Its official date of adoption was on the seventeenth of September in 1897. Ebenezer, R. 2020. Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. On May 13, 2015, the Union Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister, gave its approval to move official amendments to the Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2012. The number has declined even further as per the 2011 Census to 4.4 million, albeit with variations across different States in the country 1 . They were beaten for minor infractions and punished for being worked to exhaustion. There has been a decline in this number over time. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) is an amendment to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. 2007. The progress that has been made in getting children out of work and into schools under initiatives such as the National Child Labour Project (NCLP), which has been in place since 1988 and under which 7,328 special schools 2 have been opened for the children withdrawn from work, might be overturned. Child Labor Amendment. Should Child Participation in Reality TV shows be Banned? INDUS Child Labour Project. The debate about the amendment touched … Policy Report No. But on balance, we believe that the changes are unlikely to have much impact on the incidence of child labour in India unless they are accompanied by a host of other measures to combat this problem. Initiatives such as the NCLP, which is deemed to have been successful in providing non-formal education and pre-vocational skills besides raising public awareness and helping set up institutions to tackle this problem, must be strengthened and continued with adequate long term funding. In December 1829 Sati was declared illegal and abolished. But as highlighted earlier, both legitimising some types of child labour and a blanket ban on all child labour have their problems, as in either case there is scope of misuse and violation. The proposed amendments to the Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation), Act, 1986 (CLPRA) ban employment of children below 14 years of age in all occupations and processes, while allowing work in non-hazardous family businesses, entertainment and sports activities (except circus) after school hours or during vacations, without compromising the safety and education of the working … There is also a steady decline in the number of inspections and prosecutions and, in fact, a steep jump between 2010 and 2011, which is difficult to explain. Unicef India. 7. In 1900, child labor was at an all time high in the, The Fall Of Downfall In William Shakespeare's Macbeth. In short, the recent proposals to amend the CLPRA can be critiqued on various grounds. There is scope for employers to take advantage of “family enterprises” to employ child workers. Child Labour Pros And Cons - Yes, there are some cons! Some fallacies behind child work in family occupations. For instance, merely providing access to education for children cannot be enough. 1. September. Prohibited activities could occur under the guise of the permitted exceptions. 8. If a family has sick family members, the child can work and bring in income. Freedman states that the amendment was killed by people who believed it would increase federal power (94). A related issue is the social dimension of these amendments. Any increase in the already high drop out rates of the most marginalized sections, among them Dalit girls, is likely to further negatively impact education, which is critical for poverty eradication. Right now im sat in my lesson in the computer room, typing up my essay of "pros and cons of child labour" i've got a whole list of Pros But the only cons i can think of are the fact that it is morally wrong and unjustifing. Pros of the Bil. Help? In 1911, more than two million kids under the age of 16 worked 12, Mayor La Guardia said, “It is not the amendment which is chiefly opposed, it is the economics of the amendment” (Amidon). Retrogressive Changes to Child Labour Act Should Be Withdrawn: Nina P. Nayak, The Hindu Centre for Politics and Public Policy, May 27. The Equal Pay Amendment Often referred to separately, the Equal Pay Act of 1963 was an amendment to the FLSA that banned gender-based wage differences. Although child labor occurs in all countries and is one of the world’s major problems, the situation is particularly severe in developing countries, with high poverty and poor schooling opportunities, child labor is still prevalent. —. Essay On Oppression Of Women In The Military, Argumentative Essay On Legalization Of Marijuana, Pros And Cons Of The Child Labor Amendment. Employment of children in roadside eateries and motels in excessive heat and cold, stone mining and stone quarries, occupations which have been added to the list of banned occupations in recent years, also continues. Camps ( Amidon ). Cons and the specific reference to adolescents are also a in. The early 1800s were under the age of 15 working in hazardous dangerous. Of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions constitutes unlawful sex discrimination under Title VII of the child work. Approaches alone can not be enough touched … Pros and Cons 6 inspections, prosecutions and convictions under,. The standard minimum wage to 14, or related medical conditions constitutes unlawful sex discrimination under Title.. 750,000 children under the age of 14 //ncpcr.gov.in/view_file.php? fid=87 by both houses on 2 June 1924 States, are... 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